Thursday, January 16, 2020
One way to ensure the integrity of the data is to check for duplicate records. To find the total amount of a field, use the Total command. The Quick Sort feature lets you view the data in sequential order. A filter is a logical expression that you can type in the view's Filter text box. CAL displays only those records that match the filter. An expression is a set of operators and values that you use to perform calculations, specify conditions for a test, or create values that do not exist directly in the data. An CAL expression can be a combination of data fields or computed fields, operators,constants, functions, and variables.Commands: Statistics, Profile, Duplicate, Total, Quick SortÃ¢â¬â See the detailed explanations below. In this chapter you accomplished the following tasks: ; Opening a project Viewing the project contents ; Using Statistics and Profile commands to analyze data ; Using Quick Sort to sort the data in a specified order Creating and applying filters Examine the employee list Tasks: View the employee data project. Get statistical picture. Check for duplicate employee records. Open and view the employee data project Open the employee data projectProject: Open an existing and save project as Surname_Metaphor_Employee_Data, then K, and close project. Open an existing projectÃ¢â¬âSurname_Metaphor_Employee_Data and start. Tables: Agents_Metaphor Ã¢â¬â lists all of Metaphor's independent sales agents around the world. Rename this file as Surname_Agents_Metaphor. Employee_List Ã¢â¬â lists all of the Metaphor employees at the head office. Rename this file as Surname_Employee_list. View the contents of the employee data project (Insert your answer here) Get a statistical picture Generate statistics on the employee list Use Profile to get information about a tableLook for duplicate records Look for duplicate employee numbers Examine employee salaries and Bonuses Find total bonuses paid in 2002 Use the Total command to find total bonuses pai d in 2002 View salaries in descending and ascending order View employee salaries in descending and ascending order View employees hired in 2002 Create a filter to show employees that were hired in 2002 Determine bonus as a percentage of salary Your Log Your Folder Explanations: STATISTICS Syntax numeric-field-list specifies the numeric fields or expressions for which statistics will be provided. Et-field-list specifies the date fields or expressions for which statistics will be provided. SST calculates the standard deviation of the fields specified, in addition to the other statistics. Obtaining statistics on numeric and date fields Use Statistics on date and numeric fields to obtain an overview of the data. For specified fields, the Statistics command provides: Record counts, field totals, and average field values for positive, nil, and negative field values Absolute value Ranges Highest and lowest field values The Statistics command also populates a number of system variables. To use theStatistics command Select Analyze ÃâÃ » Statistical ÃâÃ » Statistics to display the Statistics dialog box. PROFILE PROFILE numeric fields numeric_fields specifies the numeric fields to be profiled. Producing summary statistics on numeric fields Use the Profile command to provide summary statistics on one or more numeric fields in a table. Profile provides the following information for numeric fields: Total value Absolute value Minimum value Maximum value Profile is used primarily to determine minimum, maximum, absolute, and total field values (as appropriate) before issuing the Stratify, Histogram, or Sample commands.If you want an overview of a table before detailed processing, the Statistics command provides more complete information. After a field has been profiled, CAL knows its minimum and maximum values. These values are then used as defaults for the Minimum and Maximum parameters in the Stratify and Histogram commands. Similarly, CAL knows the absolute value of the field and uses this value as the default for the Population parameter in the Sample command. If the Automatic Profile interface option is turned on, CAL automatically produces a profile of all the numeric fields in a table each time a new table is opened.The profiles can be viewed in the command results. To turn this option on, select Tools from the menu bar and choose Options. Click the Table tab and select Automatically Profile on Open. To use the Profile command Select Analyze ÃâÃ »Statistical ÃâÃ »Profile to display the Profile dialog box. DUPLICATES DUPLICATES key_field . ON key-field specifies the fields or expressions to check for duplicates. UNFORMATTED suppresses page headings and page breaks when the output is directed to a file. OTHER field-list specifies a list of fields or expressions to include in the output for a duplicates test.The fields are reported in columnar format with duplicate items displayed in grouped rows. A blank line separates each set of du plicates. The duplicated key field values are reported in the first column, followed by the specified fields. PRESORT sorts the primary table on the primary key before testing for duplicates. You cannot use the PRESORT keyword in a group. Testing for duplicates The Duplicates command detects whether key fields in the active table contain duplicates. To test for duplicate records Select Analyze from the menu bar and choose Look for Duplicates to display theDuplicates dialog box. If your table contains a great many records, it is faster and more useful to save the command results to a file than to display the results on the screen. TOTAL TOTAL numeric fields Totaling numeric fields or expressions Use the Total command to total numeric fields or expressions in the active table. Total is typically used to prove the completeness and accuracy of the data and to produce control totals. Total finds the arithmetic sum of the fields or expressions specified. As well as displaying the totals r equested, this command saves the result n a special variable, Totals. Is normally Ã¢â¬Å"1Ã¢â¬ , but adopts the sequential command number when Total is issued in a group, for example, TOTAL 17. To use the Total command Select Analyze from the menu bar and choose Total Fields to display the Total dialog box. Sorting a view with Quick Sort You can use Quick Sort to sort records on any field. Applicable only to the view, Quick Sort is a temporary means to view your records in ascending or descending order. When you are finished with Quick Sort, you can turn it off to return the view to the order in which the records exist in the table.To use Quick Sort, right-click the column header and select one of the sort options: Quick Sort Ascending Ã¢â¬â sorts the records from lowest to highest. Quick Sort Descending Ã¢â¬â sorts the records from highest to lowest. Quick Sort Off Ã¢â¬â restores the records to the previous sort order. Quick Sort applies to the view only and not to comma nds, which use the sort order that is present in the table. To sort the records in the table, use the Sort command. To index the table by one or more fields, use the Index command. Quick Sort is not available for dynamic server-based CAL tables.
Posted by e at 7:26 PM
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
When the news reports cover ethnic wars and cultural domination on a regular basis, it is easy to miss out on one important lesson: diversity is a positive thing, in the world, in business, and in education. In the U.S., diverse cultures will soon be in the majority. Public conversations on the challenges of a diverse nation make the nation stronger. In business, diversity in an organization increases its responsiveness to its diverse clients and customers. As businesses becomeÃ ever more globalized, diversity becomes more important. In education, diversity provides a range of experiences in a class that would otherwise not exist and prepares students for life in a diverse world. Read what leaders, activists, and writers have said about the importance of diversity. Diversity Quotes Maya AngelouIt is time for parents to teach young people early on that in diversity there is beauty and there is strength.Cesar ChavezWe need to help students and parents cherish and preserve the ethnic and cultural diversity that nourishes and strengthens this community and this nation.James T. EllisonThe real death of America will come when everyone is alike.Catherine PulsiferWe are all different, which is great because we are all unique. Without diversity, life would be very boring.Mikhail GorbachevPeace is not unity in similarity but unity in diversity, in the comparison and conciliation of differences.Mahatma GandhiI do not want my house to be walled in on all sides and my windows to be stifled. I want all the cultures of all lands to be blown about my house as freely as possible. But I refuse to be blown off my feet by any.Hillary ClintonWhat we have to do... is to find a way to celebrate our diversity and debate our differences without fracturing our communities.Anne FrankWe a ll live with the objective of being happy; our lives are all different and yet the same.John F. KennedyIf we cannot end now our differences, at least we can help make the world safe for diversity.Mark TwainIt were not best that we should all think alike; it is difference of opinion that makes horse races.William Sloane Coffin Jr.Diversity may be the hardest thing for a society to live with, and perhaps the most dangerous thing for a society to be without.John HumeDifference is of the essence of humanity. Difference is an accident of birth, and it should therefore never be the source of hatred or conflict. The answer to difference is to respect it. Therein lies a most fundamental principle of peace: respect for diversity.Rene DubosHuman diversity makes tolerance more than a virtue; it makes it a requirement for survival.Jimmy CarterWe have become not a melting pot but a beautiful mosaic. Different people, different beliefs, different yearnings, different hopes, different dreams.Jerom e NathansonThe price of the democratic way of life is a growing appreciation of peoples differences, not merely as tolerable, but as the essence of a rich and rewarding human experience.
Posted by e at 3:49 PM
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Individuals who reside in countries practicing a system of universal health care have access to the health services they require, which, consequently, leads to overall healthier populations. Such health services include, amongst other things, prevention promotion, treatment, rehabilitation and palliative care.(who.org) These services are provided without the risk of monetary adversity or destitution for those who use them. Ease of access to health facilities and care in turn leads to healthier people. Universal health care systems bring the entire populace into contact with good quality services and health professionals, in addition to medicines and technologies that aid in the diagnosis and treatment of medical problems. In order to meet the urgent well-being needs of the population, such systems employ a people-centered combined care approach to treatment that incorporates: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Information programs which support healthy lifestyles and avoidance of sickness Ã¢â¬ ¢ early detection of chronic conditions Ã¢â¬ ¢ capability to treat diseases Ã¢â¬ ¢ assistance for patients in convalescence and Ã¢â¬ ¢ provision, where needed, of sympathetic palliative care (who.org) The ambition of universal health is always to deliver a growing number of health services over time and to guarantee that populations have opportunities to participate in strategic preventive health programs. In this way, the goal of countries that provide universal health care is to continually work and strive to maintain healthierShow MoreRelatedUniversal Healthcare And The United States1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFarrell Persuasive Essay February 8, 2015 Universal Healthcare in the United States Disputing that the current Healthcare System (Obamacare) in the United States needs reform is not difficult. Although the current system is a step up from the previous system, lobbying and reform to get a Universal Healthcare bill passed resulted in the original legislation being rewritten to an almost unrecognizable level. However, true Universal Healthcare creates a system that is more affordable by eliminating fluctuatingRead MoreUniversal Healthcare in the United States1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesUniversal Healthcare in the United States Larrissa McBride HCS 235 Monday January 23, 2012 Margaret Meador Universal Healthcare in the United States Healthcare is on the minds of every American in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Everyone worries about what they will do to afford healthcare and even if they will receive healthcare. America has some of the greatest technological advances and in trained professionals. However, American only ranks 20th in life expectancy and we rank almost the lowest in healthcareRead MoreUniversal Healthcare Is A Human Right That Everyone Should1750 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUniversal healthcare is a human right that everyone should be entitled to; it should be a right and never a privilege. Universal healthcare is the right to refer to a health care system that focuses on providing health care and financial protection to all it citizens of that particular country. Many citizens in the United States do not have health care because of how expensive it can be, and its price is advertised as though it is a luxury when in actuality that is not the case. Therefore UniversalRead MoreHealth Care Of The United State s Essay1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Health Care in the United States Matthew Glennon Ivy Tech Community College Abstract The aim of this paper was to gather and find information over universal health care. Research will demonstrate the varying ideas on universal health care. The goal of the paper for the reader is to inform them well enough on the topic to be able to pick a side and make a solid argument. The reader will be informed on different ideas that surround universal health care. The combinedRead MoreHealthcare reform Essay1289 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The United States should have Universal Health Care Comp II The United States should have Universal Health Care Virtually 50 million Americans are presently without any health insurance, and a great number of them with health insurance are struggling to pay for their medical bills. Everybody concurs that healthcare must be accessible to all citizens, but the debate on whether the United States should adopt a universal health system still rages. According to the InstituteRead MoreUniversal Healthcare in America710 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesUnited States having universal healthcare Michelle Garbarino Eng 122 James Meetze February. 25, 2013 Should the United States have Universal Healthcare? The question of Universal Healthcare in the United States has valid and non valid arguments with supporters on both sides of the issue. Millions of Americans do not have affordable health care insurance. The main question is who is responsible to provide this? Is it feasible for government to pay for the lack of health care by taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s dollarsRead MoreThe Ranked Healthcare System Globally1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstruggling healthcare system. Most would think that something so significant to a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to work properly would be worked out by now especially in the U.S.. Ranked as the 11th healthcare system globally, it seems logical that America should be trying something new, like the idea of universal healthcare, to put us on top. So what is universal healthcare and how could it magically bring the U.S. to the top of the pyramid? In a nutshell, universal healthcare can be described as a health care systemRead MoreErerere736 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWait Times When health care is extended to everyone, it can be used too often. And with free access, a patient may go to the emergency room with the sniffles, causing longer wait times for those who have real emergencies. Access to family doctors and specialists may also be limited due to too many patients and not enough doctors. Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/30692-pros-cons-universal-health/#ixzz1KlELOteI The costs that are required for universal health care are an enormousRead MoreUniversal Health Care1668 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBenefit of universal healthcare to the society. It will be difficult to imagine life without health care. Health care today has become a serious issues, and concern because the vast medical costs. The private insurances company denying treatment bills and these have become the concern of the government of United State. The Government has been trying to reform the health care by introducing a universal health care system. A system whereby a basic health needs, can be given to people without denyingRead MoreThe New Healthcare Reform Essay919 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe United States healthcare system has failed Americans because the government has treated it as though only the wealthy should be taken care of. Universal Healthcare has benefited industrialized countries like Sweden, France, and Canada because they recognize the fact that healthcare should be a human right, and not a privilege. The debate continues over whether the reform will benefit the people and not put the government into greater debt while politicians are rais ing the constitutional flag
Posted by e at 12:14 PM
Monday, December 23, 2019
* Cidade De Deus, more commonly known as the City of God, was directed by Fernando Meirelles. This is a Brazilian film that represents and portrays the violence and horrors of living within the Brazilian Slums, known as favelas. * With over 500 slums, the favelas existed within the regions of Rio de Janeiro, containing more than a third of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s population. The word favela refers to a community of people who neither own nor have formal permission to occupy land. Rio De JanerioÃ¢â¬â¢s favelas were constructed in a period of rapid industrialization, and these favelas were entirely created to keep the poor isolated from the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s center where the more upper class people were based. * Based in Rio De Janerio, this film isÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦* This is where my scene that I will be analysing is based upon, in the 1980s. * The Socio-cultural Context of this film can be related to the drug problem in Brazil... as well as the early exposure to children in regards to violence, which in fact are still major concerns to this very day. As Brazil only established a form of democracy in the 1980s, after being under authoritarian control for over half a century it l eft the country in an extremely divided society. Chaos was bound to occur and thus the drug problem spread vastly throughout Brazil. In this world of violence, children are exposed to experienced teenage gangsters who provide the criminal influence and training to them. The exposed children then start with gaining money from various stealing, looting, robberies and thus progresses to more severe criminal acts. * Murders also occur and gang warfare, which reflects to the reality of life within the Brazilian slums. * The particular part of the film that I chose to analyse was, in my opinion, the most interesting and significant scene within the film. * What made me gainShow MoreRelatedCity of God Analysis954 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesKellene Berry Sociology 1 Kolstad 05/23/2012 Ã¢â¬Å"City of GodÃ¢â¬ Application and Analysis The movie Ã¢â¬Å"City of GodÃ¢â¬ has many examples of sociological theories of crime and deviance. Some of the major theories I noticed throughout the movie were the functionalist theory, including examples of relative depravation, as well as the interactionist theory, including differential association and labeling. There was also evidence of the conflict theory and the control theory throughout the film. The functionalistRead MoreAnalysis Of The City Of God Essay2278 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesof knowledge, so that they could either be equal or more powerful than their peers. In history St. Augustine of Hippo justified that the fall of Rome was due to the power-hungry individual who eventually ran the city to the ground. He writes his thought in a book called Ã¢â¬Å"The City of God,Ã¢â¬ which brings up the argument that having the majority of power being in the hands of corrupt leaders and the abandonment of Christian faith is what lead to the decline of the Empire. These texts will justify toRead MoreCity Of God : Movie Analysis860 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCity of God The movie of City of God took place in an urban environment in Brazil. The movie showed clear and honest images of varies issues that is happening in urban environment. As well as the social networking and the importance of education. The movie start with a poor area in the urban society. While the movie showing bunch of kid playing on the community playground, the camera showed the surroundings of the community. People are living compactly with a small area. The houses are constructedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film City Of God 1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe film, Ã¢â¬Å"City of GodÃ¢â¬ portrays numerous of brutal acts of violence and crime. This film depicts the deviant acts of a sociopathic gang leader, LiÃ¢â¬â¢l Ze and his fellow members. He recruits numerous of young kids and teaches them how to become a hood. He kills those who try to stop him from getting what he wants, which is being the one and only drug dealer. He leaves the town of Rio in distraught and in fear of their own life. Even when someone tries to get out of the slum and wants to begin a brandRead MoreAnalysis Of The Republic And Augustine On City Of God1714 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespersuasive author when considering the knowledge of the divi ne alongside Plato in Ã¢â¬Å"The RepublicÃ¢â¬ and Augustine in Ã¢â¬Å"City of GodÃ¢â¬ . Ghazali considers both belief and knowledge as necessary for knowledge of the divine while Plato focuses solely on knowledge. On the other side, while Augustine does support the idea of a rational soul, he refutes his own claim when considering the miracles of God. In this essay I will argue that incorporating both knowledge and belief, Ghazali provides an approach in whichRead MoreEssay about City of God Analysis2153 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCity of God is a depicts the reality of the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s life growing up in the slums on the outskirts of Rio. What was meant to be a small film project became a success in many ways. Although it quickly became an international sensation winning numerous awards the filmmakers were also successful with their use of various components of cinematography. One critic said that Ã¢â¬Å"City of God is a wildly entertaining film. The sheer energy of the mov ie is never less than compelling. Meirelles pulls outRead MoreAnalysis Of Saint Augustine s The City Of God 1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn Confessions Book Eight (8) and The City of God Book Five (5), Saint Augustine addresses the criticism surrounding the compatibility of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s foreknowledge and human free will. Augustine insists on two (2) truths: God is the cause of everything and man has the freedom of choice. Early in AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s career, there is an emphasis on the will. As AugustineÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of human agency begins to develop, his idea of human free will matures. Initially, Augustine describes himself as having twoRead MoreThe City Of God By John Milbank869 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAfter Augustine completed his literary piece known as the City of God, serious debate ensued regarding the correct interpretation of the concepts addressed in his writing. Augustine highlighted two realms, that of the earthly state known as the secular realm and the heave nly state known as the City of God. For instance, Etienne Gilson believed that Augustine was expressing the greatness of the earthly state while simultaneously explaining that the state bettered Christianity. Other philosophers suchRead MoreAnalysis and Discussion of Surah 801623 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnalysis and Discussion of Surah 80 Surah 80 of the Quran, which is also known as Ã¢â¬Å"`AbasaÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"He FrownedÃ¢â¬ , was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad at an important time in IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion. The surah makes use of many literary techniques to indicate the historical context to the reader, as well as strengthen the surahÃ¢â¬â¢s themes. Surah 80 has also a topic of interest for Islamic scholars, such as AbuÃ¢â¬â¢l Ã¢â¬ËAla Mawdudi and Muhammad Asad. Their interpretations and Analysis Historical Context Surah 80Read MoreAbelard and Aquinas Essay713 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Peter Abelard was a renowned dialectician from 1079 to 1142. He subjected theological doctrines to logical analysis. In other words, he used rational argument to discover truth. Saint Thomas Aquinas, was a believer in the power of reason, giving St. Augustines theory an alternate approach. He taught in Paris and Italy during the years 1225 to 1274. Both of these new age thinkers changed the way Catholic followers viewed the natural world. Peter Abelard was one of the new thinkers
Posted by e at 8:01 AM
Sunday, December 15, 2019
string(77) " understand a given phenomena when used together in a complementary fashion\." Quantitative Qualitative Research COMPARISON OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS Introduction This paper compares and contrasts qualitative and quantitative research methods in three basic areas. These are the of their: epistemological foundations, data collection methods, and data analysis methods. The paper ends with a brief summary of the primary points made. We will write a custom essay sample on Quantitative and Qaulity Research or any similar topic only for you Order Now Comparison Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) discuss several similarities and differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. With respect to similarities, both kinds of research formulate epistemological positions regarding the nature of causation and reality and both comprise a set of methods for designing research, collecting data, analyzing data, and deriving information from data collection and analysis. However, they differ in terms of the epistemological positions they advocate and in the methods they hold to be appropriate for meaningful scientific inquiry. One primary difference between the two research methods according to Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) involves their epistemological assumptions about the nature that causality. The quantitative method, according to the authors, rests on a view of causation as an external, measurable force that occurs independently of the observer and can be used to explain diverse phenomena. On the other hand, the conceptual foundation of qualitative research holds that causation itself is predominately a human interpretive process. The foregoing assumptions have implications for how scientists should study reality. Quantitative research roots its methods of acquiring information in a view that holds that reality is external to the observer whereas the qualitative method grounds its methodological principles and practices in the notion of reality as an interpretative construct. This point has been discussed by Wainwright (1997) who states that typically qualitative research seeks to discover information about any given phenomenon by obtaining an in-depth understanding of the meanings and definitions of the phenomenon that are conceptualized by informants; moreover, these need not be many informants; a simple case study of one individual is said to yield much given the subjective element of reality. Quantitative research, based on its assumptions of causation and reality, attempts to arrive at an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon by measuring Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬ in some fairly objective manner with results that can be established as valid by a set of formal scientific/methodological principles of inquiry and set criteria for reliability and validity. It seeks for results that are stable across time. Thus, while qualitative research aims at discovering how a very small collective interpret a phenomenon, quantitative research looks at some objective index of the phenomenon attempting to produce information that is stable and valid for large populations and samples. Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) note that for some domains such as education, the existing knowledge base consists of information obtained by both quantitative and qualitative research. The authors point out that many research experts believe it is quite acceptable to use both kinds of research to collect information about a given phenomenon despite their differing assumptionsÃ¢â¬â-provided that the two methods are assigned differing roles in terms of the contribution they make to understanding the phenomenon being studied. With respect to the foregoing, qualitative methods are assigned the role of intensively observing some small sample and conceptualizing possible themes, patterns, processes, and/or structures as being involved in the phenomenon of interest. Quantitative methods are then called upon to determine whether the conceptualized constructs are supportable or confirmed. For example, a quantitative study might be conducted of three special education studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses to inclusion with possible patterns of response being conceptualized based on this small sample. Quantitative methods would then be used to determine whether this pattern of response is present in a much larger collective of special education students. Thus, qualitative and quantitative research can be seen as working together in complementary fashion. Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) report that the extent to which the two types of research can work to complement each other, in actual practice, is dependent on two contingencies. First, the phenomena being studied must be stable across time. Second, qualitative researchers must provide constructs that can be operationalized which is to say that can be measured in some objective way using a numerical system of some sort. If these conditions are satisfied, quantitative measures can then be used to support whether what is present at the individual or case level is also present for larger populations and samples. Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) further report that some researchers do not believe the two research approaches can actually work together in a complementary fashion; this because of their differing epistemological views of causation and reality Ã¢â¬â views which make for not only conceptual but also profound methodological differences. For example, quantitative research stipulates that a researcher must state what can be expected to be revealed by his data analysis based on existing research (hypothesis formulation and testing). Qualitative researchers, however, believe that theories and concepts are only meaningfully derived AFTER the data has been collected. Similarly, the two research types differ in the methods they use to derive meaningful information from the data. Quantitative methods hold that the data should be analyzed statistically while quantitative research holds that it should be analyzed using formal methods of reasoning and interpretation. Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) have also listed some of the differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods in terms of the reports each side outputs following their investigations. In this regard, the authors state that the reports of quantitative research tend to be impersonal and objective write-ups of research findings. Qualitative research reports, on the other hand, are said to reflect the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s analytical reconstruction and interpretation of data provided to readers with an awareness that the readers themselves will, in fact, reinterpret what is reported. However, since it is likely that the epistemological structures of both research methods have some truth and some error in their epistemological frameworks, Gall, Borg and Gall (1996) state that it is quite possible that both methods can contribute valid data and so edify scientistsÃ¢â¬â¢ attempts to understand a given phenomena when used together in a complementary fashion. You read "Quantitative and Qaulity Research" in category "Essay examples" Given the foregoing, it seems reasonable to suggest that the determination as to whether a given researcher should use qualitative or quantitative methods, or use both conjointly, may depend upon the nature of information he desires and the use to which it shall be put. For example, Crowl (1996) states that if a researcher desires to focus on some complex issue and to use it in a pragmatic way, then it is wise to conduct research using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Both methods are said to provide a broader examination of the phenomenon and thus yield a fuller understanding of its complex structure. This broader look, in turn, is said to foster greater insight into the ways the information can be practically applied. Mertes (1998) states that there are certain kinds of information needs that are better suited to being answered using qualitative methods than quantitative methods. These are said to include: (1) the need to understand in detail why an individual does something; (2) the need to determine what aspects, components, or elements of a given issue or phenomenon are important and why they are important; (3) the need to identify a full range of responses or opinions existing in a given collective; and (4) the need to find areas of consensus in patterns of response. On the other hand, Mertes (1998) states that quantitative research is probably the best choice if there is a need to determine Ã¢â¬Å"how manyÃ¢â¬ or to measure some volume-related characteristic of a collective. In other words, quantitative research should be used when there is an interest in how many people in a population have a particular characteristic or response. Further, Mertes (1998) reports that quantitative research is appropriate for measuring attitudes and behaviors, for profiling certain groups, and for formulating predictions. One particularly interesting point about qualitative and quantitative research methods is to note that the distinguishing characteristics are actual differences only to a certain extent. For example, McKereghan (1998) notes that qualitative and quantitative research can be distinguished in several ways and goes on to list some of these differences. Specifically, it is noted that quantitative research is objective; qualitative research is subjective. Quantitative research seeks explanatory laws; qualitative research aims at in-depth description. Quantitative research measures what it assumes to be a static reality in hopes of developing universal laws. Qualitative research is an exploration of what is assumed to be a dynamic reality. It does not claim that what is discovered in the process is universal and, thus, replicable. However, what McKereghan (1998) points out is that when actual research studies are examined in methodological detail, they seldom fit the sharp clear models of differences that are provided in written discussions of the two research approaches. Rather, in most any given study, elements of quantitative and qualitative procedures can be found. Because of this, McKereghan argues that discussing research using this dichotomy may not be especially applicable to what actually goes on in the world of research. Thus, while the two methods can be distinguished, it is probably important to note that this clarity of distinction is present far more in theory than in practice. Finally, it can be noted that quantitative methods help to make generalizations to larger groups and follow a well-established and respected set of statistical procedures, of which the properties are well-understood. However, in terms of practice, there is again an important issue related to whether practice actually meets the standards set for this research approach. As noted by Gall, Borg and Gall (1996), many studies are designed poorly, i. e. , many studies cannot find a significant difference when one exists, due to insufficient sample sizes or to extremely small effect sizes. Further, quantitative methods are often misinterpreted. Summary In this paperÃ¢â¬â¢s comparison of qualitative and quantitative research methods, several points were made. It was noted that the two research approaches differ in terms of their epistemological positions on causation and reality and this in turn makes for a number of methodological differences in the approaches. For example, it was noted that qualitative research typically entails in-depth analysis of relatively few subjects for which a rich set of data is collected and organized. Quantitative research, on the other hand, was said to entail the proper application of statistics to typically a large number of subjects. Further, the points were made that while quantitative research is objective; qualitative research is subjective. Also, it was noted that quantitative research seeks explanatory laws; qualitative research aims at in-depth description. In addition, quantitative research was said to measures what it assumes to be a static reality in hopes of developing universal laws while qualitative research is an exploration of what is assumed to be a dynamic, shifting, interpretative reality. It was noted that due to the differing nature of the two research approaches, it is likely that the selection of which to use will depend upon the nature of the information sought by the researcher and the use to which this information will be put. Examples were offered showing the kind of research to which each method or a combination of methods are particularly suited. Finally, the point was made that while there appear to be large differences between the approach from a philosophical/conceptual position, in actual research, methods from both approaches are often used. Further, the standards set for conducting each particular type of research, especially quantitative research, are often not met. References Crowl, T. K. (1996). Fundamentals of educational research (2nd ed. ) Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark. Gall, M. D. , Borg, W. R. Gall, J. P. (1996). Educational research: An introduction (6th ed. White Plains, NY: Longman. McKereghan, D. L. (1998). Quantitative versus qualitative research: An attempt to clarify the problem. Document available at:http://socrates. fortunecity. com/qvq. html. Mertes, D. M. (1998). Research methods in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Wainwright, D. (1997). Can sociological research be qualitative, critical and valid? The Qualitativ e Report, 3(2). Document available: http://nova. edu/ssss/QR/QR3-2/wain. html. How to cite Quantitative and Qaulity Research, Essays
Posted by e at 4:31 AM
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Develop an Android App for Blood Group Managment System. Answer: Introduction to the project Blood group refers to the tiny particles or components within the blood of any human being that help determine the suitability or compatibility of ones blood with another. As such it is usually the case when carrying out blood transfusion. These components must, therefore, be studied and grouped appropriately to avoid any mix up whenever emergencies arise  Most hospitals within the United Kingdom have given numerous reports indicating the difficulty they go through when handling emergency cases that require a blood transfusion. So many lives have been lost because of this too . A proper blood group system made available not just to health facilities but also the general public could prove to be a very useful tool in reducing and possibly eliminating such deaths . Objectives of the project To come up with a creatively designed system to help manage all the blood group types and also be able to store additional information about an individuals health status even in their phones. Additionally, it aims at enhancing the dispensation of blood transfusion services to the general public in case of any emergencies . Problem statement This project was enthused by a careful and comprehensive study of the existing healthcare management systems used by all healthcare facilities within the United Kingdom . It became very apparent that there was not a single system employed in the management of patients blood group. A study conducted earlier on also revealed that the public has limited knowledge about their blood group types, therefore making this available on their mobile phones would be of great help to them. Literature review Blood is conventionally termed as the universal most precious element in saving lives as it saves countless lives across the globe with various conditions. A blood bank refers to a place or a storage facility designed to warehouse blood products and blood. Typically, the word blood bank refers to a section of a health care facility laboratory where blood is stored and tested to lessen risks of transfusion-related happenings. Blood bank information systems provide essential functionalities so that individuals can gain quick access to donor records from different countries across the globe. A group blood management is one that is designed to help in the proper storage, processing, retrieval and analysis of all information related to a blood storage facility. The system described here is always meant for hospitals and usually not available to the general public to facilitate their management and ease in responding to emergencies . According to the World Health Organization, most blood banks have an inventory management system that is usually restricted to the personnel working within those institutions. Therefore, it creates a huge gap between those who are made in charge of such agencies and those who are meant to use their services. Patients that require quick and emergency blood transfusion usually have difficulty when it comes to getting the right blood type to facilitate this process thus leading to massive loss of lives. Recently, research suggests that there are some existing systems such as the Blood Connect. Blood Connect and E-Blood Bank. Blood Connect was unveiled as a project under NSS IIT Delhi in India on 1st April 2010 with an apparent objective to solve the problem shortage of blood in India. According to WHO, India faces of three million blood units. It was suggested that such a scenario would be eliminated if two percent of Indias youth donates blood. Therefore, Blood Connect was launched to act as a channel in connecting voluntary donors with needy recipients. Currently, Blood Connect has developed a 360-degree solution to the problem of blood shortage. On the other hand, E-Blood Bank was launched in India primarily to connect blood donors and blood recipients. The application works in such a way that a recipient can locate a matching donor. The application was designed in such a way that push notifications enables informs recipients in need of the location of hospitals in the local area that has a matching blood donor in their blood banks. Making this system simpler and available on any Android-based device will be a bold move towards the dissemination of these services to a phone user in the United Kingdom and the world as a whole. This system once downloaded and installed by a mobile phone user, will be able to store information about their blood group, the availability of such a blood group and also go ahead to calculate the possible blood groups for their relations with children, parents, and other close relatives. This results in the generation of a tree diagram with clear indication and illustration of the most important health information about these people . This android based system is supposed to carry the following functions: Facilitate the online movement of blood from one bank to another. Check and confirm the availability of a particular type of blood group in any medical treatment center in the United Kingdom and the world as a whole. Relay information about a patients blood group and where they can find the most suitable blood type in case of any emergency Proper record keeping of all medical information related to all possible donors thus making it easy to fast track. Gaps in literature In as much as several studies have been conducted in this area, most of these studies relate to causes of the poor blood bank management system (WHO and UNESCO, 2008) where tripling human population strain the few blood storage facilities. Few of these studies major on the lack of scientific information to back the theoretical findings and lack of community awareness particularly in all level of the society on the need to have information related to their blood group at their fingertips . This research proposal, therefore, highlights the need for sampling of all the available blood group management techniques and systems and coming up with a more refined and inclusive system that is not only used by healthcare centers but also by individuals all over the world . Project tools and resources The completion of this project will require the following tools that will aid in the carrying out of research and information analysis. Data collection tools such as pens, books, well-equipped library System development instruments such as coding and programming technology Web hosting services. Software development and analysis technique. Methodology This project uses the waterfall model of presentation as it requires a full completion of a particular phase or stage before moving to the next level of the project. This model is also the most suitable for this project since this project is very direct and has no uncertainties at all. The initial stage of the project involves the gathering of all the requirements and tools needed for all the activities. The second stage includes the design of the whole system that should be used in managing the blood group and how they should be segmented. This stage also involves looking at the hosting and other web services related to this server . An implementation and testing phase then sets in. Here, the blood group management system is put into practice and tested for any loopholes or necessary improvements as required. Once all the necessary requirements and changes have been made to the system, the whole server can now be moved and deployed to all the centers that require that use it and also to be added to all the android servers so that all users can reach and download them  Because of certain unforeseen circumstances, this system may require maintenance from time to time. Such improvements may include updates of the software and enhancing user experience. The waterfall method is preferred because it is easy and simple to use; ease in managing the system related to the model and also suitable when it comes to handling small projects like this. Also, a number of challenges such as making it difficult to make changes to the system once the testing stage is attained. Bibliography "Blood Bank Management System", Bbmspunjab.gov.in, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://bbmspunjab.gov.in/. [Accessed: 23- Aug- 2016]. J. Howse and A. Jha, Android application programming with OpenCV. Birmingham, England: Packt Publishing, 2013. J. Sheusi, Android application development for Java programmers. Boston, MA: Course Technology PTR, 2013. D. Torres Milano, Android application testing guide. Birmingham, U.K.: Packt Pub., 2011. J. Ellis, American Creation. New York: A. A. Knopf, 2007. R. Bremner, Chairman of the Fed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004. K. LAN and Y. ZHANG, "Application of Android in remote medical information system", Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1790-1792, 2013. K. Koek, "Application of Android OS as real-time control platform", automat, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 197, 2013. P. Papapetrou and J. Lalou, Android application development with Maven. R. Rogers, Android application development. Sebastopol, Calif.: O'Reilly, 2009. W. Lee and K. Mittal, Beginning Android application development. Indianapolis, Ind.: Wiley Pub., 2011. M. Burton and D. Felker, Android application development for dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2012. G. Ponnappa, "Project Stakeholder Management", Project Management Journal, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. e3-e3, 2014. D. Torres Milano, Android application testing guide. Birmingham, U.K.: Packt Pub., 2011. S. Conder and L. Darcey, Android wireless application development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2010. L. O'Meara and J. Hamilton III, Yii Rapid Application Development Hotshot. Birmingham: Packt Pub., 2012.
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Friday, November 29, 2019
Foreign Language Education Essay, Research Paper In 7th class every awkward prepubescent in my Homeroom category made agendas for our last twelvemonth in in-between school. The hebdomad earlier, we were herded into the media centre to listen to representatives from local colleges to discourse get downing college readyings early. The counsellors truly knew nil, which wasn? t a daze, but they provided us with a list of demands necessary for both graduation and college entryway. Among the list of 4 old ages of English and 3 of scientific discipline there were 2 old ages of Foreign Language that had to be taken. I didn? T know what I was acquiring myself into when I started by subscribing up for Spanish 1. I took it upon myself to be a critic on the unity of the Foreign Language demand. Overall, is foreign linguistic communication instruction necessary? As a pupil in foreign linguistic communication categories in high school, I had many experiences, ideas, and thoughts sing my foreign linguistic communication instruction which were both positive and negative. We will write a custom essay sample on Foreign Language Education Essay Research Paper In or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Analyzing my 5 old ages of taking Spanish, I know I? ve wondered infinite times if what I was larning had any cogency, and even if it was valid, is larning it worth it? Was at that place traveling to be a point in my life when I needed to cognize the definition of altramuces? Am I traveling to of all time be in a tally down mercado in Mexico looking for acrimonious headers? I don? t think so, it led me to farther idea. Foreign linguistic communication instruction has been a really rewarding thing to hold taken in high school. Language is a really complex thing. It takes thought, organisation, and verbal logical thinking to be able to talk Spanish. It is really complicated to fumble words, both Spanish and English, to set them in the right order, tense, and understanding. No imbecile can make it. Knowing this, the minute when I communicated with another individual in a different linguistic communication was self-gratifying. I felt a sense of ego achievement. The first clip I addressed the issue, I was instantly for foreign linguistic communication instruction. Learning Spanish was a great experience that had broadened my skylines in many ways. This peculiar instruction had enabled me learn a linguistic communication and civilization. At Northeast recently we have been peculiarly sensitive to multiculturalism and integrity among races, genders, credo and so on. My second/third twelvemonth of Spanish focused chiefly on larning about the land and civilization of the people whose linguistic communication we were seeking to larn. Isn? T it genius to integrate multiculturalism like that! Our Spanish instructors had echt enthusiasm in instruction, because of that I am more unfastened other civilizations. I understand who they are, where they come from, and what they represent. Educationally spe aking, I have learned mucho about linguistic communications, non entirely Spanish. I know punctilious nitty-gritty information about the English linguistic communication analyzing Spanish. I had to analyse sentence construction, verb junction, and the cockamamie regulations that make up the English linguistic communication. I know what a gerund is, what more can you desire from our educational system? Another benefit of foreign linguistic communication instruction is larning more about one? s ain linguistic communication, it seems to me that the common sceptic would besides state that it would be more good to the taxpayer to hold a category entirely based on the nitty-gritty on the English linguistic communication. I could hold in some facets, possibly it would do the old run-on sentence non run so much. I personally feel that the my biggest satisfaction in larning Spanish has been the ability to pass on. When I talk to native talkers I frequently get asked why I? m so happy. The reply is that I love talking Spanish! ! ! The emotions behind seting something together that I? ve been fostering for 5 old ages must be like the emotion an creative person feels while unveiling his piece that he has been on for old ages. I? m merely am demoing what I? ve done, what I? ve learned. Although I can talk Spanish it doesn? t mean others can, this is the difficult portion. I know that I? ve had many things that have facilitated my capacity to larn another linguistic communication, chiefly my desire and motive. It wouldn? t be normal if all the universe was to be as aroused about Spanish as I am. I steadfastly believe that what we love to make, is what we learn the most from. I learned a batch about Spanish and how to talk it because I love it. I am one of the few that really have the ability to tr ansport on a half manner nice conversation. Many of the pupils that learn Spanish Don? T learn anything, for case my sister who wouldn? T be able to discourse. I know that holding a best friend who is fluent in Spanish has besides been an plus. He has helped me on many assignments. We have created a motive for me to larn more Spanish, merely so that we can speak about people without holding to whisper. The ability to talk another linguistic communication is variable, it depends on what you put into it. It produced for me, because I invested in it. I feel that foreign linguistic communication is a demand. It is necessary to understand, or at least effort to understand something that is foreign. It provides many benefits which can be utilized in many facets of anyone? s mundane life. In decision, through my incredulity, foreign linguistic communication instruction is indispensable, non merely a demand. It will ease fostering my calling, broaden my cultural skylines, and give me a better apprehension of myself. These things can be used por todo el mundo.
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